MODULE 3 ENGINEERING PHYSICS VTU NOTES 22PHYS12 | 22PHYS22 | VTU Notes For Engineering Students by vtuguide.in

 Principles of Quantum Information & Quantum Computing: Introduction to Quantum Computing, Moore’s law & its end, Differences between Classical & Quantum computing. Concept of qubit and its properties. Representation of qubit by Bloch sphere. Single and Two qubits. Extension to N qubits. 

Dirac representation and matrix operations: Matrix representation of 0 and 1 States, Identity Operator I, Applying I to|0⟩and |1⟩ states, Pauli Matrices and its operations on |0⟩and |1⟩states, Explanation of i) Conjugate of a matrix and ii) Transpose of a matrix. Unitary matrix U, Examples: Row and Column Matrices and their multiplication (Inner Product), Probability, and Quantum Superposition, normalization rule. Orthogonality, Orthonormality. Numerical Problems 

Quantum Gates: Single Qubit Gates: Quantum Not Gate, Pauli – X, Y and Z Gates, Hadamard Gate, Phase Gate (or S Gate), T Gate Multiple Qubit Gates:Controlled gate, CNOT Gate, (Discussion for 4 different input states). Representation of Swap gate, Controlled -Z gate, Toffoli gate.

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